TS Can Quang
As we knew, language planning is the development of goals, objectives and strategies to change the way in which the speakers think of and use their language (Baker & Jones, 1998; Ignace, 1998). Language planning refers to various ways of influencing a language to raise its status and to modify its system and structure. Government, departments and agencies, academic committees, popular societies or individuals can carry out language planning. The resources and funds for language planning can be provided by individuals, Governments, third parties, or some combination (Baker & Jones, 1998).
Besides the purpose of reversing language shift and preventing language death, language planning refers to some other important purposes, which were recognized by many researchers. Language planning is to reform and revitalize a language, to modernize and standardize a language, to spread and strengthen the language communication, and to attain national unity and harmony (Asmah, 1994; Coronel-Molina, 1999; Kavanagh, 1999; Ignace, 1998 Nahir, 1984; Noss, 1994). Language planning can involve various types and levels taking advantage of various factors that have to be considered. Here are some typical factors that have great influence on the language planning.
One of those factors that influence language planning was a linguistic factor as in the Cham situation. Linguistic factors can be regarded as the status and characters of a language. It means that the phonemes, morphemes, semantics and structures of the language have to be considered with the intention of developing the simpler and more appropriate. In the case of a language with a less appropriate writing system for day-to-day usage, it is imperative that language planning is done to reform this inappropriateness. The development of a language depends on the public preference and speakers’ attitudes. They like easier, simpler and more convenient to use. Such considerations would inform the reasons, why an individual, a speech community, a nation prefer this language to the other. For instance, in Indonesia, Malay (Bahasa Melayu) was preferred to Japanese and Balinese, because it is less complicated than Japanese and others in terms of characters, though it is a minority language. Many individuals prefer to learn and use English to Chinese, for the former has simpler characters and writing systems than the latter, the more complicated one. The status of a language can also influence its preference as national language of a country. That is the reason why many multilingual countries in Africa would choose European languages or English as their official languages (Fishman, 1974; Tomitope, 2011).
Political factors, essentially and constantly impact on language planning, are considerations that relate the general policy of a country to its language policy. As the main agent in the process of language planning, government usually utilizes language planning to achieve its covert or non-covert aims such as political stability and economic benefits, adjustment of language status and revival of endanger languages (Baker & Jones, 1998).
Asmah, H. O. (1994). Nationalism & exoglossia: English in Malaysia. In H. Abdullah (Ed.), Language planning in Southeast Asia (pp. 65-85). Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka: Kuala Lumpur.
Baker, C., & Jones, S. P. (1998). Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Coronel-Molina, S. M. (1999). Language and Literacy Planning. Summer Literacy Training Program 1999. International Literacy Institute.
Fishman, J. (1994). “What Do You Lose When You Lose Your Language?” Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (p. 71-81). Retrieved on March 22, 2004 http://www.nclea.gwu.edu/miscpubs/ stabilize/ iii-families/lose.htm
Ignace, M. B. (1998). A handbook for aboriginal language program planning in British Columbia. First Nations Education Steering Committee: British Columbia.
Kavanagh, B. (1999). The Aboriginal Language Program Planning Workbook. First Nations Education Steering Committee: British Columbia.
Nahir, M. (1984). Language planning goals: A classification. In C. B. Paulston & G. R. Tucker (Ed.) (2003), Sociolinguistics: The essential readings (pp. 443-448). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Noss, R. B. (1994). The Unique of Language Planning in Southeast Asia. In A. Hassan (Ed.), Language Planning in Southeast Asia (pp. 1-51). Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka: Kuala Lumpur.
Tomitope, O. (2011). Factors that influence language planning. Retrieved 2011 from http://www.slideshare.net/topinsn/factors-that-influence-language-planningpptx